Superior General's Letters

Society of Saint Pius X


25 years of Pontificate
Menzingen 2004


1. The 25th anniversary of the election of John-Paul II is an occasion to reflect upon the fundamental orientation that the Pope has given to his pontificate. In the aftermath of the Second Vatican Council, he has wished to place his pontificate under the sign of unity: “The restoration of unity of all Christians was one of the principal purposes of the Second Vatican Council (cf. UR nº 1) and since my election I have formally committed myself to promote and execute its norms and its orientations, considering as my primordial duty”.1 For the Pope, this “restoration of the unity of Christians” is but one step towards a greater unity, that of the whole human family: “the unity of Christians is open to a unity ever more vast, that of all humanity”.2

2. As a result of this fundamental choice:

­         John Paul II has esteemed it a duty to “take into hand this conciliar magna charta, the Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium.3 which defines the Church as “a sacrament, that is to say, at the same time a sign and means of intimate union with God as well as of the unity of the entire human race”.4 This “taking into hand” had been done in order to “better realize this vital communion in the Christ of all those who believe and hope in him, but also in order to contribute to a greater and stronger unity of the whole human family”;5

­         John Paul II has consecrated the essence of his pontificate to the fulfilment of this unity, by repeated interreligious meetings, acts of repentance and ecumenical gestures. This has also been the principal reason for his voyages: “they have allowed me to reach the particular Churches in every continent, prompting a sustained attention to the developing of ecumenical relations with the Christians of different confessions”;6

­         John Paul II has distinguished the Jubilee year 2000 by an ecumenical gesture.7

In all truthfulness, “one can say that all the activities of the local Churches and of the Apostolic See have had these last years an ecumenical inspiration”.8 Twenty-five years have passed, the Jubilee has past, it is now the time of judgment.

3. For a long time, John Paul II has believed that his pontificate would be a new Advent,9 permitting “the dawn of this new millennium to shine upon a Church that has found again her full unity”. 10Thus the “dream” of the Pope will be realized: “that all the peoples of the world from different parts of the globe, coming together to unite themselves to the unique God as one whole family”.11 But the reality is completely different: “The time in which we live seems to be an aberrant epoch where many men and women seem disoriented”.12 There reigns over Europe a “sort of practical agnosticism and religious indifferentism” to such a degree that “European culture gives the impression of a ‘silent apostasy’”.13 The ecumenism is not a stranger to this situation. This analysis of the thought of John Paul II (First Part) will show us that, not without a profound sadness, the ecumenical practices come from a no-catholic thought (Second Part) and lead to a “silent apostasy” (Third Part).

Chapter I


The Unity of the Human Race and Inter-religious dialogue

Christ, united to every man

4. The foundation of the thought of the Pope is found in the affirmation that states that “the Christ ‘has united himself in a certain way to all men of’ (Gaudium et Spes nº 22), even if these men are not aware of it”.14 John Paul II explains, actually, that the Redemption wrought by Christ is universal not only in the sense that it is superabundant for the entire human race, and that it is proposed to each of its members in particular, but especially that it is de facto applied to all men: if then, from one point of view, “in the Christ, religion is no longer a ‘search for God by trial and error’ (Acts 17, 27), but a response of the faith in God who reveals Himself […], a response made possible by this unique Man […] in whom every man is made capable to respond to God”. From another viewpoint, the Pope adds “that in this Man, whole creation responds to God”.15 In actuality, “each man is included in the mystery of the Redemption and with each one Christ has united himself for ever through this mystery. […] That is, man in all the fullness of the mystery in which he has become a sharer in Jesus Christ, the mystery in which each one of the four thousand million human beings living on our planet has become a sharer from the moment he is conceived”.16 In such a way that “in the Holy Spirit, each person and all peoples have become, by the Cross and resurrection of Christ, the children of God, participators in the divine nature and the heirs of eternal life”.17

The Meeting at Assisi

5. An immediate application of universality of the Redemption is the manner in which John Paul II treats the relations between the Church and other religions. If the commandment of unity previously described “is that which come from the creation and the redemption, and is thus, in this sense “divine”, these differences and these divergences, even religious, come rather from a ‘human con-sequence’”18 which ought to be “left behind by the progress towards the realization of the grandiose design of unity which precedes the creation”.19 From this follows the inter-faith meetings such as at Assisi, 27 October 1986, during which the Pope wanted to detect “in a visible way the fundamental but ridden unity which the divine Word […] has established amongst all men and all women of this world”.20 By these acts, the Pope wishes to proclaim to the Church that “Christ is the fulfilment of the yearning of all the world’s religions and, as such, he is their sole and definitive completion”.21

The Church of Christ and Ecumenism

The Unique Church of Christ

6. The divine unity resting intact, the historical divisions come from that which is human; this double scheme is applied to the Church, considered as a communion. John Paul II distinguishes, in fact, the Church of Christ, the divine reality, and the different churches, fruits of “human divisions”.22 The contours of the Church of Christ are fairly ill defined as they overflow the visible limits of the Catholic Church.23 The Church of Christ is an interior reality.24 The Church gathers together at least the entirety of Christians,25 no matter what church they belong to: all are “disciples of Christ”,26 “in a common membership to Christ”;27 they “are one, because, in the Spirit, they are in the communion with the Son, and in Him, in communion with the Father”.28 The Church of Christ is thus the Communion of Saints, above all divisions: “The Church is the Communion of Saints”.29 In reality, “the communion in which Christians believe and hope in is a profound reality, their union with the Father by the Christ and in the Holy Ghost. Since the day of Pentecost, this union is given and received in the Church, the Communion of Saints”. 30

The divisions in the Church

7. According to John Paul II, divisions in the Church which have happened during the course of history never affected the Church of Christ, that is to say that the fundamental unity of Christians amongst themselves has been left inviolate: “By the grace of God, that which belongs to the structure of the Church of Christ has not yet been destroyed, nor the communion which endures with the other churches and ecclesial communities.”31 These divisions are in reality of another order, they only concern the manifestation of the communion of saints, that which makes it visible: the traditional bonds of the profession of faith, the sacraments and the hierarchical communion. In refusing one or other of these bonds, the separated Churches interfere only with the interests of the visible communion with the Catholic Church, and this only partially: this said communion is lesser or greater according to the number of ties that have been safeguarded. One thus speaks of the imperfect communion between the separated churches and the Catholic Church, the communion of all in the unique Church of Christ remaining intact.32 The term “sister-churches” is often used.33

8. According to this conception, that which unites the different Christian Churches is greater than that which separates them:34 “The common spiritual dimension surpasses all the confessional barriers which separates us from each other”.35 This spiritual dimension, such is the Church of Christ. If this Church only “subsists”36 “in an unique subject”37 in the Catholic Church, she keeps at the least an “active presence” in the separated communities in reason of the “elements of sanctification and truth”38 which are present in them. This alleged common spiritual dimension John Paul II wished to ratify by the publication of a martyrology common to the churches: “The ecumenism of the saints, of the martyrs, is perhaps that which is the most convincing. The voice of the communion of saints is stronger than that of the troublemakers of division.”39

Neither absorption nor fusion, but reciprocal giving

9. From this, “the ultimate end of the ecumenical movement” is only “the reestablishment of the full visible unity of all the baptized.”40 A unity so conceived will no longer be realized by the “ecumenism of return”:41 “We reject this method of searching for unity. […] The pastoral action of the Catholic Church, both Latin and Eastern, no longer tries to make the faithful pass from one Church to another.”42 In fact this would forget two things:

­         -These divisions, which Vatican II analyzes as a breach of charity,43 are attributable to both parties: “Evoking the division of Christians, the Decree on Ecumenism does not ignore ‘the fault of men of either parties’, recognizing that the responsibility cannot be attributed ‘only to the other party (Unitatis Redintegratio, n° 3)’.” 44

­          -Ecumenism is also a “exchange of gifts”45 between the churches: “The exchange of complementary gifts between the churches makes the communion fruitful.”46 This is the reason why the unity desired by John Paul II “is neither absorption nor fusion.”47 Applying this principle to the relations between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox, the Pope develops this idea: “Today, the two sister-churches of the East and West understand that without a mutual understanding of the profound underlying reasons which characterize the understanding of each of them, without a reciprocal giving of the treasures of the genius they carry, the Church of Christ cannot manifest the full maturity which she had received from the beginning, in the cenacle.” 48

The Recomposition of the Visible Unity

10. “Just as in a family the eventual discords ought to leave their place to the recomposition of unity, so also one should do the same for the vast family of the whole Christian community.”49 This exceeding of human dissensions by the recomposition of the visible unity is the methodology of the Pope. One must apply this methodology to the traditional three bonds of the profession of faith, the sacraments and the hierarchical communion, seeing that these are what constitute the visibility of this unity.

Unity of the Sacraments

11. One knows how Paul VI has applied this method in the sacraments: in the successive liturgical reforms which applied the conciliar decrees, “the Church has been guided […] by the desire to do everything to help our separated brethren on the way to union, taking away the stones that could be even the shadow of a risk of stumbling or displeasure.”50

12. The obstacle of a Catholic liturgy expressing too much dogma being thus put aside, there remains the problems posed by the liturgies of the separated communities to be overcome. The reform thus gives place to recognition: the Assyrian anaphora (Nestorian) of Addaï and Mari was declared valid by a document clearly approved by John Paul II, in spite of the fact hat it does not contain the words of consecration.51

Unity in the Profession of Faith

13. In what concerns matters of faith, John Paul II considers that “the polemics and the intolerant controversies have often transformed into incompatible affirmations of what was in fact the result of two researches investigating the same reality, two different points of view. Today we must find the formula that, taking hold of this reality in its integrity, permits us to overcome the half-reading and to eliminate erroneous interpretations.”52 This demands a certain latitude in respect to the dogmatic formulas used by the Church up until now. One must resort to historical relativism, in order to make the dogmatic formulas depend on their epoch: “The truths which the Church really understands to teach by her dogmatic formulas are without a doubt distinct from the changing concepts proper to a determined epoch; but it is not excluded that they might possibly be formulated, even by the Magisterium, in terms which carry some traces of such concepts.”53

14. Two applications of these principles are often pointed out as examples. In the case of the Nestorian heresy, John Paul II judges that “the divisions which came about were in large measure due to misunderstandings.”54 In effect, if the principle which states that “In the first place, with regard to doctrinal formulations which differ from those normally in use in the community to which one be-longs, it is certainly right to determine whether the words involved say the same thing”55 is clear, the practical application is embezzled. From this follows the recognition of the Christological faith of the Eastern Assyrian Church without any demand that they adhere to the formula of the Council of Ephesus, that Mary is the Mother of God.56 Even more characteristic is the common declaration with the World Lutheran Federation. Its solicitude was not to state the faith and to stay clear of error, but only to find a formulation suitable to escape the anathemas of the Council of Trent: “This common declaration carries the conviction that the surpassing of condemnations and questions of momentary controversy does not signify that the separations and condemnations be treated lightly or that the past of each our ecclesial traditions be disavowed. Nonetheless, this declaration carries the conviction that a new discernment of the history of our Churches has occurred.”57 Cardinal Kasper summarized it simply with the commentary: “Where we had at first sight a contradiction, we can now see a complementary position.”58

The hierarchical communion

15. As far as the Petrine ministry is concerned, the desires of the pontiff are known: to find, in harmony with the pastors and theologians of different Churches, “the forms in which this ministry could realize a service of love recognized by each.”59 Thus is introduced the standard of the necessitas Ecclesiae,60 understood today as the realization of the unity of Christians, to palliate that which in the exercise of the petrinian ministry could become an obstacle to ecumenism.

16. According to Cardinal Kasper, this proceeding does not suffice. One must overcome the obstacles present in the separated communities, for example the decreed invalidity of Anglican orders.61 The course that he proposes for this is a redefining of the concept of Apostolic succession, no longer “in the sense of a historical chain of the imposition of hands going back centuries to the Apostles – this vision would be a very individualistic and mechanical” but rather as “a collegial participation in a college which, as a whole, goes back to the Apostles by a sharing in the same apostolic faith and the same apostolic mission.”62

1. John Paul II, Allocation to the Secretariat for the unity of Christians, 18 November 1978. La Documentation Catholique (DC) nº 1753, 3 December 1978, pg. 1017.

2. John Paul II, Angelus Message of 17 January 1982. DC nº 1823, 7 February 1982, pg. 144.

[3] John Paul II, First Message to the World, 17 October 1978. DC nº 1751, 5 November 1978, pgs. 902-903.

4. Ecumenical Council Vatican II, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, nº 1.

5. John Paul II, First Message to the World, 17 October 1978. DC nº 1751, 5 November 1978, pg. 903.

6. John Paul II, Tertio millenio adveniente, nº 24. Cf. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 42 : “The ecumenical celebrations are amongst the most important events of my apostolic voyages in the different parts of the world.”

7. John Paul II, Sermon for the opening of the Holy Door of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, 18 January 2000, DC nº 2219, 6 February 2000, pg. 106: “The Week of Prayer for the Unity of Christians begins today in Rome with the celebration of him who sees us united. I desired that it would coincide with the opening of the Holy Door of this Basilica consecrated to the Apostle of the nations, to empha­size the ecumenical dimension that must distinguish this Jubilee Year 2000.”

8. John Paul II, Tertio millennio adveniente, nº 34.

9. John Paul II, Redemptor hominis, nº 1.

10. John Paul II, Sermon given on in the presence of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantiople Dimitrios I on 29 November 1979 at Instanbul. DC nº 1776, 16 December 1979, pg. 1056.

11. John Paul II, Message for the 15th International Prayer Meeting for Peace. DC nº 2255, 7 October 2001, pg. 818.

12. John Paul II, Ecclesia in Europa, nº 7, DC nº 2296, 20 July 2003, pg. 670-671.

13. John Paul II, Ecclesia in Europa, nº 7 & 9, DC nº 2296, 20 July 2003, pg. 671-72.

14. John Paul II, Discourse to the Cardinals and to the Curia of 22 December 1986, The situation of in the world and the spirit of Assisi. DC nº 1933, 1 February 1987, pg. 134.

15. John Paul II, Tertio millennio adveniente, nº 6.

16. John Paul II, Redemptor Hominis nº 13.

17. John Paul II, Message to the Peoples of Asia, 21 February 1981. DC nº 1804, 15 March 1981, pg. 281.

18. John Paul II, Discourse to the Cardinals and to the Curia of 22 December 1986, The situation of the Church in the world and the spirit of Assisi. DC nº 1933, 1 February 1987, pg. 134.

19. John Paul II, ibid.

20.John Paul II, ibid, pg. 133.

21. John Paul II, Tertio millennio adveniente, nº 6.

22. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 42 : “The very expression ‘separated brethren’ tends to be replaced today by expressions which more readily evoke the deep communion — linked to the baptismal character — which the Spirit fosters in spite of historical and canonical divisions.”

23. Ecumenical Council Vatican II, Decree Unitatis redintegratio, nº 3 : “Moreover, some and even very many of the significant elements and endowments which together go to build up and give life to the Church itself, can exist outside the visible boundaries of the unique Catholic Church. […] All of these, which come from Christ and lead back to Christ, belong by right to the one Church of Christ.” For this reason the document Lumen Gentium (nº 8) says that the Church of Christ “subsists in” the Catholic Church, and not that she “is” the Church of Christ. See the commentary of Cardinal Ratzinger, Ecclesiology of the Conciliar Constitution Lumen Gentium, conference of 27 February 2000. DC nº 2223, 2 April 2000, pgs. 310-311: “By this expression, the Council differentiates from the formula of Pius XII who in his Encyclical Mystici Cor­poris stated that the Catholic Church “is” (est, in latin) the unique mystical body of Christ. […] The difference between ‘subsists’ and ‘is’ shows the drama of ecclesial division. Even though the Church is one and subsists in a unique subject, ecclesiastical realities exist outside of this subject: true local Churches and various ecclesial Communities.”

24. This affirmation follows directly from the manner in which Lumen Gentium (nº 7, 8) presents the Church. Up until this point, the Magisterium speaks of the Church using the analogy of Saint Paul, the Church being the body of Christ; body, thus visibile: “She is a body and thus the Church is visible to our glances.” (Leo XIII, Satis cognitum, DzH 3300) Yet the Council refuses to make this allusion: it treats separately the Church as the Body of Christ (LG nº 7) and of the visibility of the Catholic Church (LG nº8). Thus it lets to be understood that the Church, Body of Christ [Church of Christ] is not of itself something visible. Certainly, LG nº 8 affirms the necessary union of the Church of Christ and of the organic Church: “The society structured with hierarchical organs [Catholic Church] and the Mystical Body of Christ [Church of Christ], are not to be considered as two realities, nor are the visible assembly [Catholic Church] and the spiritual community [Church of Christ], nor the earthly Church [Catholic Church] and the Church enriched with heavenly things [Church of Christ]; rather they form one complex reality”. But this affirmation is not sufficient: the union of two distinct things – the Church of Christ and the organic Church – is not an affirmation of the unity proper to the Church. This unity on the contrary is refused when it says that the Church of Christ “subsists in the Catholic Church”: the relation between the container and the contents is not that of identity, especially when it is affirmed that the Church of Christ makes itself actively present elsewhere than in the Catholic Church which is perfectly con­tained therein. In consequence of this affirmation and from the development of LG nº 15, John Paul II often states that the baptized, in spite of his ecclesial membership, is and rests united to Christ, incorporated in Him. This theory affirming that the Church is interior is so widespread that the cardinals, even so different as J. Ratzinger and W. Kasper, make mention of it as evident : “ ‘The Church awakes in souls’: this sentence of Guardini has been nurtured for a long time. In fact, it shows that the Church has been finally recognized and lived as something interior, which does not exist as some sort of institution facing us, but rather living in ourselves. If, up until then, the Church had been considered firstly as a structure and an organization, one finally becomes aware that we ourselves are the Church. She was much more than an organization: She was the organ of the Holy Ghost, something vital, in the depths of our conscience. This new awareness of the Church finds its linguistic expression in the concept of the ‘Mystical Body of Christ’ ” (J. Ratzinger, Ecclesiology of Vatican II, con­ference given the 15 September 2001 on the occasion of the opening of the Pastoral Congress of the Diocese of Aversa); “The True nature of the Church – the Church as the Body of Christ – is hidden, and can only be perceived by faith. But this nature, perceived uniquely by faith, becomes realized under visible forms.” (W. Kasper, The Ecumenical Commitment of the Catholic Church, conference given 23 March 2003 to the general assembly of the Federated Protestants of France, Œcuménisme informations nº 325, May 2002 and nº326, June 2002).

25. “At least”, because Karol Wojtyla goes further in reality, as at the occasion of the retreat that his preached to the Vatican when he was Cardinal: “O God of infinite majesty! The Trappist or the Carthusian confess this God by a whole life of silence. The Bedouin wandering in the desert turns toward him when the hour of prayer approaches. And this Buddhist monk absorbed in contempla­tion, who purifies his spirit in turning it towards Nirvana: but is it only to­wards Nirvana? […] The Church of the Living God unites in her precisely these peoples who in some manner participate to this admirable and fundamental transcendence of the human spirit.” (Karol Wojtyla, Le signe de contradiction, Ed. Fayard 1979, pgs. 31-32)

26. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 42.

27. John Paul II, ibid.

28. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 9.

29. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter concerning certain aspects of the Church understood as communion, nº 6; DC nº 2055, 2 August 1992, pgs 730.

30. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter concerning certain aspects of the Church understood as communion, nº 6; DC nº 2055, 2 August 1992, pgs 730.

31. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 11.

32. Vatican II, Decree Unitatis redintegratio, nº 3: “For men who believe in Christ and have been truly baptized are in communion with the Catholic Church even though this communion is imperfect. The differences that exist in varying de­grees between them and the Catholic Church – whether in doctrine and some­times in discipline, or concerning the structure of the Church – do indeed create many obstacles, sometimes serious ones, to full ecclesiastical communion. The ecumenical movement is striving to overcome these obstacles.” After speaking of this visible communion partially broken, the decree adds, in order to show the permanence of invisible communion: “But even in spite of them it remains true that all who have been justified by faith in Baptism are members of Christ’s body, and have a right to be called Christian, and so are correctly accepted as brothers by the children of the Catholic Church. […] The brethren divided from us also use many liturgical actions of the Christian religion. These most certainly can truly engender a life of grace in ways that vary according to the condition of each Church or Community. These liturgical actions must be regarded as capable of giving access to the community of salvation.”

33. Cf. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 56, 57 and 60; Allocution in the Basilica Saint Nicolas of Bari, 26 February 1984. DC nº 1872, 15 April 1984, pg. 414; Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Eastern Assyrian Church, DC nº 2106, 18 December 1994, pg. 1070; Sermon pro­nounced in presence of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Dimitrios I, 29 November 1979 at Istanbul. DC nº 1776, 16 December 1979, pg. 1056: “I invite you to pray with fervor for the full communion of our Churches. […] Beg the Lord that we, pastors of Sister-Churches, might be the best instruments in this historic hour, to govern these Churches, that is to serve them as the Lord wishes, and thus to serve the unique Church which is His Body.”

34. Cf. John Paul II, Tertio millennio adveniente, nº16.

35. John Paul II, Discourse to the delegation of the Lutheran World Federation, 9 December 1999, DC nº 2219, 6 February 2000, pg. 109.

36. Vatican II, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium nº 8; Decree Unitatis redintegratio, nº 4; Declaration Dignitatis humanae, nº 1.

37. Cardinal Ratzinger, Ecclesiology of the Conciliar Constitution Lumen Gentium, conference given the 27 February 2000. DC nº 2223, 2 April 2000, pg. 311.

38. Vatican II, Decree Unitatis redintegratio, nº 3; John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 11.

39. John Paul II, Tertio millennio adveniente, nº 37.

40. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 77.

41. One understands the term “ecumenism of return” as Pius XI in his encyclical Mortalium Animos: “To encourage the to return the dissidents to the only true Church of Christ, as they had in the past the misfortune to separate themselves from her. The return the unique true Church, as we say, clearly visible to our eyes.”

42. Declaration of the International Mixed Commission for the theological Dia­logue between the Catholic and Orthodox Church, 23 June 1993, also called the “Balamand Declaration”, nº 2 and 22. DC nº 2077, 1 August 1993, pg. 713. This citation only concerns “uniatism”, but Cardinal Kasper gives more systematic formulation “The old concept of ecumenism of return today has been replaced by that of a common journey, which directs Christians towards an ecclesial communion comprised as a unity in reconciled diversity”. (W. Kasper, The Common Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification : a reason for hope. DC nº 2220, 20 February 2000, pg. 167)

43. Vatican II, Decree Unitatis redintegratio, nº 3: “In subsequent centuries much more serious dissensions made their appearance […] which, often enough, men of both sides were to blame.” From which the nature of conversion demanded by this document, nº 7: “There can be no ecumenism worthy of the name without a change of heart. For it is from renewal of the inner life of our minds, from self-denial and an unstinted love that desires of unity take their rise and develop in a mature way.” Cf. Cardinal Kasper, Conference to the Ecumenical Conference of Churches of Berlin. DC nº 2298, 21 September 2003: “ ‘Conver’. There is no ecumenical reconciliation without conversion and renewal. There is no conversion from one confession to another. This could happen in particular cases, but only for reasons of conscience – this merits respect and consideration. But there is no need for the others to convert, as conversion begins with oneself. Everyone must convert. We must not ask firstly ‘what is wrong with the other’, but rather ‘what is wrong with us; where should we begin to clean house?’ ”

44. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 11; cf. n° 34.

45. Vatican II, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, nº 13; cf. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 28.

46. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 57.

47. John Paul II, Allocution in the Basilica Saint Nicolas, 26 February 1984, given in the presence of the Metropolitan of Myre, Konstantinidis (patriarchat of Constantiople). DC nº 1872, 15 April 1984, pg. 414.

48. Ibid.

49. John Paul II, Angelus of 17 January 1982. DC nº 1823, 7 February 1982, pg. 144.

50. A. Bugnini, Modification to the Solemn Prayers of Good Friday. DC nº 1445, 4 march 1965, col. 603. Cf. G. Celier, La dimension œcuménique de la réforme liturgique, Editions Fideliter, 1987, pg. 34.

51. Cf. L’Osservatore Romano, Italian edition, 26 October 2001. Guidelines for Admission to the Eucharist between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of East, Note and orientations of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, DC n° 2265, 3 March 2002, pg. 214.

52.John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 38.

53. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 38, quoting the Declaration Mysterium Ecclesiae of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. DC nº 1636, 15 July 1973, pg. 267.

54. Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of East, DC n° 2106, 18 December 1994, pg. 1609.

55. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 38.

56. DC nº 2106, 18 December 1994, pg. 1069. Cf. DzH, nº 251d and 252.

57. Common Declaration of the World Lutheran Federation and the Catholic Church, nº 7 (cf. Nº 5, 13, 40-42). DC nº 2168, 19 October 1997, pgs. 875.

58.W. Kasper, The Common Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification: a reason for hope. DC nº 2220, 20 February 2000, pg. 172.

59. John Paul II, Ut unum sint, nº 95.

60. The Primacy of the Successor of Peter in the Mystery of the Church, reflections of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. DC nº 2193, 6 December 1998, pg. 1018.

61. Leo XIII, Apostolic Letter Apostolicae curae, 13 September 1896.